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These stories often inform local taboos that may discourage the consumption of particular species or deforestation of particular areas (Osei-Tutu 2017; Roncal et al asthma or bronchitis advair diskus 500mcg visa. The role that primates play in human cultures is complex and varies significantly with local history asthma treatment prednisone order 500mcg advair diskus with amex, religious practice asthma symptoms bronchial asthma buy advair diskus 500 mcg low price, and economies asthma symptoms for baby discount advair diskus master card. In other primate habitat countries, such as Bali, primates play a significant role in religious practice. Long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Bali are frequently found in the forests surrounding Hindu temples and will consume offerings left by residents and tourists once festivals or rituals are concluded (Fuentes 2010; Wheatley 1999). These macaques are seen by some as mediators between the natural world and the spiritual world that transports offerings from one realm to another (Wheatley 1999). Investigating how local residents view primates-for example, whether species are considered sacred or not-is a vital component of conservation programs in these areas (Peterson and Riley 2017). Economic Significance of Primates One of the most promising ways that primates can benefit people is through the potential to stimulate local economies from ecotourism. Ecotourism differs from traditional tourism in three main ways: it focuses on nature-based attractions, it provides learning opportunities, and its tourism management practices adhere to economic and ecological sustainability (Fennell and Weaver 2005). Primates are charismatic megafauna, meaning that they are large animals (oftentimes mammals) that elicit mass appeal. They have the possibility to draw tourists, which can in turn bring revenue to lower-income communities found near primate habitats. This attraction from tourists, along with revenue-sharing, can then stimulate local populations to have more positive attitudes toward protected areas and become more invested in the well-being and protection of primates and their habitats (Archabald and Naughton-Treves 2001). Primate Conservation 679 Perhaps one of the greatest success stories of nature-based tourism revolves around the mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) of Rwanda. After internal conflict plagued Rwanda during the 1990s, the Virungas area developed gorilla-based tourism as a means to aid in socioeconomic development and to bring stability to the region. This process not only helped to increase mountain gorilla populations but was also able to generate enough income to cover the operation costs of three national parks (Maekawa et al. Research indicated that low-income individuals living around Parc National des Volcans in Rwanda could garner direct income as well as nonfinancial benefits (such as the development of schools and hospitals) from gorilla tourism in the region (Spencely et al. Although ecotourism has the potential to alleviate poverty situations for local populations and aid in the overall sustainability of natural habitats, it can also bring a suite of new problems to areas. Food sharing and other forms of direct contact between humans and primates provide opportunities for disease transmission. Despite most ecotourists understanding the dangers of human-primate contact, according to a recent survey over half would still opt to touch or feed primates if possible (Muehlenbein 2017). Though nature-based tourism may have benefits for local communities (Spencely et al. Role of Research Systematic and long-term research studies provide some of the most foundational and necessary information for the conservation of endangered primates (Kappeler and Watts 2012). Research provides critical data on essential and preferred feeding resources, life history parameters and reproduction rates, territoriality, the carrying capacity of habitats, and solitary or group social dynamics. Within the last few decades, researchers have also begun to stress the acute need for studies investigating how various primates are responding to human disturbances; how climate change is affecting the behavior, range, and habitat of these species; and the significance of primate biodiversity hotspots (Brown and Yoder 2015; Chapman and Peres 2001; Estrada et al. Understanding these aspects will provide crucial information for practitioners to make the most effective and species-specific conservation decisions. Long-term studies on primate species provide some of the most conclusive information on changes occurring to populations in the face of anthropogenic disturbances and climate change. They also provide a suite of direct and indirect conservation contributions to endangered species, and the continual monitoring of populations can deter deleterious anthropogenic actions, allowing for population growth and forest regeneration. For example, the Northern Muriqui Project of Caratinga in Minas Gerais, Brazil, has documented growth of both the muriqui population and the regeneration of the forest via secondary succession (Strier 2010). The project has also invested in future research and conservation by training more than 65 Brazilian students, as well as providing stable jobs for local people, stimulating the local community, and alleviating reliance on forest products for income and survival (Strier 2010; Strier and Boubli 2006; Strier and Mendes 2012). Several other long-term primate studies all over the world have seen similar positive impacts and conservation successes including work in Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Berenty Reserve, and Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar; Lomas Barbudal and Santa Rosa National Park, Costa Rica; Khau Yai National Park, Thailand; Amboseli National Park, Kenya; Gombe Stream National Park, Tanzania; Kibale National Park, Uganda, among many others (Kappeler and Watts 2012).
Play the puck - not the man Penalty for - charging asthmatic bronchitis 33 discount advair diskus amex, pushing asthma treatment names discount 250mcg advair diskus overnight delivery, hipping asthma scientific definition cheap 500 mcg advair diskus amex, tripping (with foot or stick) Penalty -one minute out of game asthma treatment latest generic 250mcg advair diskus with visa. Defenders stay on defensive side of mid-line, both feet on wrong side of midline determines an off-side violation. If you block or catch the puck with your free hand you must put the puck down directly in front or beside you. Six players, 1 goalie, 2 offense, 1 center, 2 defense Seven minute halves - 3-1/2 minute quarters. Game starts with a face-off Best result happen with precise passing and shooting Players must play the puck - not the man. No checking Player may catch a lifted puck with his hand, but must drop it immediately and play it with his stick. Players should abide by the rules of the game to make certain that the game runs more safe. Center is the player who starts with the ball every play and hikes it to the quarterback. Safety is the player who defends against the pass and offers support on running plays also. Any ball dropped or thrown, that hits the ground, is a dead ball that cannot be recovered. The offensive team must line up on the line of scrimmage, the defensive team begins three yards from them. If either team enters the neutral zone before the ball is snapped, it is called offsides, and a 5 yard penalty results. A line that is drawn, parallel to the football, that divides the offense from the defense. This is the line after the goal line, any ball caught past this line is out of bounds. You can only get an extra point after a touchdown, 1 point for a pass and 2 points for a run. Failure of a player to retain possession of the ball while running or attempting to receive a hand-off, center, or a lateral pass. A quarterback handing the ball forward behind the line of scrimmage to a back field player. Action by the offensive linemen and backs in which they use their bodies to keep the defensive players from the ball carrier. The purpose of the game was for each team to obtain possession of the ball and, holding it in a pocket carved out of a stick, carry it across a specified goal line. Goals are placed in the middle of a 9 foot circle and no players are allowed to enter the goal circle. The team consists of three defensive players, 3 attack players and 3 mid-fielders. The rules for "Stick" Lacrosse are basically the same as for the official game, but do not allow any physical contact. There are some lines which are very important: the out-of-bounds line, the center line, and the off-sides lines. The goal is twenty yards from the endline and is in the center of a nine foot radius circle. An out-of-bounds ball is given to the side opposite of the player who touched it last, at the spot where it went out. If the ball goes out-of-bounds on a try for a goal, it goes to the player who is nearest the ball when it went out-of-bounds. This includes fighting, hitting the body with the stick, tripping, body-checking from the rear, or any other illegal check. No player may interfere with the progress of an opponent unless the opponent has possession of the ball or both players are within five yards of a loose ball. When a player commits a foul, he is put in the penalty box for a period of 1 to 3 minutes.
Reports of successful treatment of Acanthamoeba infection have been few (Table 4) asthma treatment bird buy discount advair diskus 250mcg. Nephrotoxicity caused by pentamidine isethionate treatment has been reported in other patients with Acanthamoeba infection (307 asthmatic bronchitis otc treatment buy advair diskus master card, 449) asthma symptoms shoulder pain discount 100 mcg advair diskus mastercard. Treatment with multidrug regimens for humans with disseminated Acanthamoeba infections have met with mixed results asthma treatment recent advances purchase advair diskus 500mcg with amex. On the other hand, multidrug treatment regimens have proven less successful for some patients because of the induction of multidrug toxicity. Use of a combination of amphotericin B, rifampin, and 5-fluorocytosine resulted in initial improvement but the patient died of gramnegative bacterial septicemia. While many patients respond to initial treatment, a number of these die of related illnesses (69, 128, 258, 307, 322). Therapy with intravenous pentamidine and itraconazole along with topical ketoconazole and chlorhexidine was reported by Van Hamme et al. Cardiac toxicity due to pentamidine treatment was noted in another patient with cutaneous disease (258). Amebic Keratitis Because diagnosis is difficult and treatment is often delayed, infection with Acanthamoeba may result in total loss of sight in the infected eye. If infection is recognized early, wide epithelial debridement may be curative if the epithelium alone is involved (53, 184, 261). Debridement may remove infectious organisms and enhance the delivery of topical medications (17, 198). When Acanthamoeba infection proceeds without early treatment, the organisms invade deeper into the corneal region. Under these circumstances, when therapy is instituted it is often continued for several months to 1 year or longer (17). Furthermore, patients must be monitored for recurrence of disease because cysts are resistant to many drugs. Treatment failures are frequently reported; this may be attributed to poor penetration of the agent, insufficient duration of treatment, or acquired resistence to the drugs. A number of therapeutic agents are not effective at the late stage of infection, especially when the amebae have invaded tissues beneath the cornea (118, 139, 161, 186, 323, 447). Binder (36) suggested cryotherapy for patients showing a poor response to medicinal and surgical treatment. In vitro susceptibility testing of isolates may prove beneficial for application of early treatment regimens. The cysts are then scraped from the agar, washed, and incubated in dilutions of anti-ameba drugs for 48 h. The minimal cysticidal concentration is determined and is defined as the lowest concentration of test solution that results in no excystment and growth of trophozoites after 7 days of culture. This treatment regimen was effective only when initiated early in infection (17, 120, 294, 314, 402, 482). Chlorhexidine in combination with propamidine provided rapid and successful treatment for corneal Acanthamoeba infections (402). Imidazoles such as miconazole, itraconazole, and ketoconazole have been used with limited success (32, 108, 186, 198, 261, 315, 482). Penetrating keratoplasty was performed because of the possibility of corneal perforation. Although corticosteroids reduce inflammation, recent studies suggest that the use of corticosteroids should be avoided if possible (108). In vitro and in vivo studies using experimental animals suggest that exposure of cysts to corticosteroids such as dexametha- sone phosphate increases the pathogenicity of the amebae (298). Keratitis in dexamethasone-treated hamsters was found to be more severe than in untreated animals. New therapeutic agents are being sought for the treatment of Acanthamoeba infections. More recently, the emergence of resistance to commonly used antimicrobial agents and biocides in the treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis and in contact lens disinfection systems has been assessed (323, 448). Resistance to biocides apparently results from the physical barrier of the cyst wall rather than being a consequence of the presence of metabolically dormant cysts (448). In one study, the amebicidal activity of eight different alkylphosphocholines against Acanthamoeba spp. Treatment with hexadecylphosphocholine resulted in complete lysis of Acanthamoeba in vitro within 1 h of addition of the compound.
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