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And just as Europe craved to know all about the lives of the savages of India and the New World pregnancy 10 weeks purchase generic estrace line, so too did they eagerly await any news of the quaint and curious customs of the African aborigines menstruation questions answers buy estrace with paypal. Their law was uncomplicated: a man who committed a crime was either fined if his of-fense were not serious by tribal standards women's health center hershey pa cheap estrace online master card, or he was executed womens health za cheap estrace american express. They lived in mud huts without windows and shared their cramped living quarters with their animals. Their women did all the work; their men hunted, looked after the cattle, farmed a little, and occasionally went to war. Surely, Europe rationalized, God had ordained such people to be slaves to the superior white race. One of the native customs that seemed especially unusual to the European mind was their peculiar penchant for eating and smoking hemp leaves. To a part of the world that thought of hemp only as a source of fiber, this strange practice seemed particularly puzzling and fascinating. The Cannabis Habit in Africa When the natives first began using cannabis as a drug is not known. The only way the African natives could have learned about it would have been through their contact with outsiders, and the most likely point of contact was the Arabs. The earliest evidence for cannabis in Africa outside of Egypt comes from fourteenth-century Ethiopia, where two ceramic smoking-pipe bowls containing traces of cannabis were recently discovered during an archaeological excavation. The plant, he said, was cultivated throughout Kafaria (near the Cape of Good Hope) and was called bangue. The Kafirs were in the habit of eating its leaves, and those that used it to excess, he said, became intoxicated as if they had drunk a large quantity of wine. Far from cowering before the white man, these Kafirs were a proud and confident people whose king received his white visitors as vassals rather than conquerors. Speaking of their chief, Quiteve, dos Santos writes: "if the Kafirs have a suit, and seek to speak with the king, they crawl to the place where he is, having prostrated themselves at the entrance, and look not upon him all the while they speak, but lying on one side clasp their hands all the time and having finished they creep out of doors as they came in. In 1658, Jan van Riebeeck, the first governor of the Dutch colony at the Cape of Good Hope, described the use of cannabis by yet another tribe, the Hottentots. They were not a "pure" native tribe, but rather the offspring of Egyptian soldiers who had deserted their posts in Ethiopia around 650 s. Although they had once been a warrior race, by the time the Dutch came to Africa the Hottentots were a tribe of cattle and sheep herders. The Dutch called them "beachcomers" because the Hottentots frequented the shoreline searching for any edible meat still on the carcasses of seals and whales stranded on the beaches. Frustrated at not being able to buy cattle from these natives at a reasonable price, the Dutch brought their own cattle to the Cape Colony, along with farmers (Boers) to look after them. The coming of the Boers, it turned out, signaled the en-slavement of the Hottentots. The Boers were not merely content with robbing the Hottentots of their land, they also began raiding their herds. To pre-serve their precious cattle, many of the Hottentots moved further north into the interior. Those who tried to make a fight of it were either killed or taken prisoner and made to serve as domestic servants for the rest of their lives. The Hottentot custom that most intrigued the Dutch, judging by the frequency with which they refer to it, was their unique use of hemp, which they called dagga. By 1705, however, both the Hottentots and their neighbors, the Bushmen, were smoking, having been taught the art by the white man. The popular-ity of smoking even created a new demand for pipes, and a new skill, pipe making, came into being. Smoking trans-formed the taking of dagga into a communal event, especially among those tribes that had few pipes. Pipe bowls were made of various materials such as wood, stone, bone, or pottery, and were often fitted to a horn filled with water. At the start of a typical native "smoke-in," a quantity of water was put into the horn, the mouth was applied to the large orifice of the horn, and the smoke, after being drawn through the water, was inhaled quickly three or four times and then exhaled in a violent fit of coughing, causing tears to stream down the cheeks: "This was considered the height of ecstasy to the smoker. The process continued until the fumes of the dagga produced a kind of intoxication or delirium and the devotee commenced to recite or sing, with great rapidity and vehemence, the praises of himself or his chief during the intervals of coughing or smoking. Sometimes this took the form of a hole in the ground into which the dagga was placed. The drug was then mixed with burning manure and tunnels were dug into the sides of the mound.

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On these occasions menstruation smell discount estrace online visa, she is also subjected to especially demeaning body scans by a female Stasi agent with plastic gloves breast cancer 8mm tumor generic 2mg estrace mastercard. She easily establishes rapport with her adolescent patients-in particular menstrual related migraines generic 1mg estrace visa, with the sixteen-year-old Stella 4 menstrual cycle stages generic estrace 1mg on-line, a chronic runaway from the inhumane reformatory in Torgau. But Barbara is far less certain about how to respond to Andrй, her supervising doctor. Because Andrй knew so much about her at the outset, Barbara assumes that he is an unofficial Stasi coworker. Still, because of the humanistic values they share in their work and their similar appreciation of art, literature, and music, Barbara falters in her original harsh assessment of Andrй. Thus, rather than take advantage of her opportunity to flee by means of a raft that would transport her to Denmark via the Baltic Sea, Barbara enables Stella-practically in the last minute-to take her place on the raft. Unlike the setting of the second film, the East German setting of Barbara was by no means alien territory for Petzold, as critics tend to assume because he was born and raised in West Germany. Petzold did not, however, derive most of his knowledge of East Germany from parental tales but experientially: between 1966, when he was six years old, and 1976, he and his brothers spent their summer vacations with relatives in East Barbara 341 Germany. Though it is understandable that Petzold wanted to focus entirely on East Germany in at least one of his films, it may be somewhat puzzling that he chose to set it in the year 1980, not a year that immediately calls forth important associations with either East or West Germany. But 1980 was the kind of transitional time period that Petzold has favored throughout his film career. Shying away from momentous events and the equally momentous dates associated with them, Petzold prefers the in-between times, the times when change has either just occurred or is imminent- its nature, though, still indefinite and its repercussions unknown. Petzold emphasizes that around 1980 the West was experiencing the dissolution of the hippie era. And with the election of Margaret Thatcher to British prime minister in 1979 and Ronald Reagan to U. That life would soon change in unforeseen ways-first in the West and eventually in the East too-was clear (Ratner 2012, 24). By 2008, Petzold was able to pinpoint some of the changes set into motion by the new neoliberal form of capitalism: while constantly exhorting citizens to independence, government abdicated many of its responsibilities in areas such as health, prison, and schooling; on the other hand, it strengthened its regulatory capacities to promote capitalism on all fronts. Removed from high profile hospital positions (Andrй from Eberswalde and three years later Barbara from Berlin), they are relegated to a provincial town that has fallen off the radar. Located in northeastern Germany, close to the Baltic Sea, it does not even have a name. But, rather than dismiss the town or judge it prematurely, Petzold responds to it in the mode of the Berlin School he represents: he observes the site closely in order to perceive how it shapes its inhabitants. In short, he is convinced of its singularity and that the precise nature of the singularity reveals itself only through close, intense observation. In contrast to plot- and action-driven narrative cinema, his films-like those of the Berlin School in general-thus represent a "cinema of 342 German Culture through Film observation," a filmmaking approach that has its own consequences for character portrayal and formal film aesthetics (Hochhдusler 2013, 25). Lowry of the Museum of Modern Art as "one of the most influential auteur movements to emerge from Europe in the new millennium" (Lowry 2013, 9), the Berlin School is not an actual movement but a loose grouping of filmmakers with comparable artistic concerns. Noting similarities in the cinema of some German filmmakers emerging in the mid-1990s-traits differentiating their films from the comedies of the early 90s that were no longer laughing matter-film critics came up with the designation "Berlin School. Since the mid-90s, many other names have been added to the roster of Berlin School filmmakers. Regardless of whether they were born in Berlin, had studied in Berlin, or made films set in Berlin, most now live in Berlin. In some instances, though, filmmakers use the rubric merely as a convenient advertising label, capitalizing on the fact that the Berlin School stands for quality filmmaking and aesthetic innovation. In France, its films are celebrated as "nouvelle vague allemande" (New German Wave) and garner large audiences. In the United States, moreover, Barbara was the first Petzold film to receive distribution (it ran in forty-three cities). Rather, the films center on everyday reality-on everyday objects, events, and people.

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Campbell breast cancer 6 lymph nodes discount estrace 1 mg without prescription, "On the Religion of Hemp breast cancer 77 year old buy cheap estrace 1mg online," in Indian Hemp Drugs Commission Report (Simla 4 menstrual stages generic 2 mg estrace mastercard, India: 1892-4) menstruation 14 days estrace 2mg otc, 3: 250-2. Rudenko, Frozen Tombs of Siberia (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1970), p. Ar-tamanov, "Frozen Tombs of the Scythians," Scientific American 212 (1965): 101-9. Bellinger, "Textiles from Gordion," Bulletin of the Needle and Bobbin Club 46 (1962): 5-33. Campbell also felt that the similarity between gan-zi and the Hindu word qanjha also support his arguments. Waterman, Royal Correspondence of the Assyrian Empire (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1930), letter 368. Waterman, Royal Correspondence of the Assyrian Empire (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1930), Letter 368. There is also no reference to cannabis in any of the hieroglyphic writings on histori-cal documents during the time of the pharaohs. Not long thereafter, the drug became a controversial issue in Egyptian society and laws were passed to outlaw its usage (see Chapter 2). Lucas, Ancient Egyptian Materials and Industries (London: Edward Arnold, 1962), p. While Roman farmers as a rule did not raise much hemp, some writers did advise how best to sow hemp seeds for a good crop. It is only in recent times that a privileged few have found some respite from the heat through the miracle of air conditioning. Like their forefathers, they must endure temperatures that often soar to over 100°F. The excessive heat dictates that the people work only in the mornings and the evenings ("Only mad dogs and En-glishmen go out in the noonday sun"). Not only can it store large quantities of water in its body, but the camel also does not sweat. By a similar adaptation, plants are able to survive by being able to retain their water. It is because of this capacity to minimize evaporation that plants such as cannabis are able to live in the parching Arabian heat. The means by which cannabis accomplishes this amazing feat is by producing a thick, sticky resin that coats its leaves and flowers. This protective canopy prevents life-sustaining moisture from disappearing into the dry air. It is the stuff that dreams are made of, the stuff that holds time suspended in limbo, the stuff that makes men forgetful, makes them both sad and deleriously happy, makes them ravenously hungry or completely disinterested in food. There is no shortage of legends, however, to fill in the dark, long-forgotten memories of that eventful moment. One of the most colorful of these stories tells how Haydar, the Persian founder of a religious order of Sufis, discovered hashish in A. For ten years he lived in this distant retreat, never leaving it for even a brief moment, seeing no one except his disciples. One hot summer day, however, Haydar fell into a state of depres-sion and, contrary to his custom of never venturing out of his monastery, he wantered off into the fields to be alone. When he re-turned, his disciples, who had become alarmed at his unusual absence, noted a strange air of happiness and whimsy in his demeanor. Not only that, the hitherto reclusive monk even allowed them to enter his per-sonal chambers, something he had never done before. Haydar responded to their curiosity with amusement and proceeded to tell them how he had been wandering in the fields and had noticed that of all the plants near the monastery, only one had not been standing motionless in the oppressive heat of the day. Overwhelmed by curiosity, Haydar picked a few of its leaves and ate them to see what they would taste like. Haydar agreed, but not before he made them promise under oath that they would not reveal the secret of the plant to anyone but the Sufis (the poor). So it was, according to the legend, that the Sufis came to know the pleasures and contentment of hashish. After his discovery, Haydar lived another ten years, allegedly sub-sisting on cannabis leaves.

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If an effect is found menstrual flow that includes large blood clots generic estrace 2 mg with amex, the dependent variable is the one group to which an independent that changes in relation to the independent variable womens health 6 10 garcinia purchase estrace us. For example menstrual cramps 9 weeks pregnant order estrace 2 mg amex, the variable is applied number of hours you study (the independent variable) affects your control group: the group performance on an exam (the dependent variable) pregnancy due date calendar purchase discount estrace on-line. Participants who are treated the same way as the except that the experimental experimental group, except that they are not exposed to the independent treatment (the independent variable, make up the control group (see Figure 2. Without it, a researcher cannot be sure the experimental group is reacting to what he or she thinks it is reacting to-a change in Figure 2. By comparing the way control and experimental groups Psychology is an experimental science. Psychologists behaved in an experiment (statistically), follow the same general procedures when conducting the researchers can determine whether the experimental research. Step 4: Experiment (Testing): hypothesis: an educated guess about the relationship between two variables a. Participants (randomly assigned to groups) Ethical Issues Experimental group spends four hours a day watching violent programs Control group spends four hours a day watching nonviolent programs b. Measure aggressive behavior (dependent variable) of experimental and control groups Ethics are the methods of conduct, or standards, for proper and responsible behavior. In 1992 the American Psychological Association published a set of ethical principles regarding the collection, storage, and use of psychological data. These principles are as follows: · Using recognized standards of competence and ethics, psychologists plan research so as to minimize the possibility of misleading results. Any ethical Step 5: Compare Measurements Step 6: Interpret Results and Draw Conclusions 40 Chapter 2 / Psychological Research Methods and Statistics problems are resolved before research is started. Psychologists are also responsible for all research they perform or is performed by others under their supervision. Researchers have attempted to balance the rights of animals with the need for advancing the health of humans through research. While some people oppose subjecting animals to pain for research purposes, others point to the enormous gains in knowledge and reduction in human suffering that have resulted from such research. Review the Vocabulary Explain how a psychologist might select a sample for a survey. Visualize the Main Idea In a chart similar to the one below, list and describe the advantages and disadvantages associated with each method of research. Think Critically Why should psychologists question the results of an experiment that they have conducted for the first time? Application Activity Suppose you wanted to find out whether there was a correlation between hours spent watching television and test grades in psychology class. Design a plan using one or more of the methods of research to help you study this correlation. One young woman died of fear in a most peculiar way: When she was born, on Friday the 13th, the midwife who delivered her and two other babies that day announced that all three were hexed and would die before their 23rd birthday. As the third woman approached her 23rd birthday, she checked into a hospital and informed the staff of her fears. The staff noted that she dealt with her anxiety by extreme hyperventilation (deep breathing). Vocabulary self-fulfilling prophecy single-blind experiment double-blind experiment placebo effect · · · · Objectives · Summarize the methodological hazards of doing research. Technically, when people do not breathe voluntarily, they breathe reflexively-the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood activates breathing. By breathing so deeply for so long (hyperventilating), the woman exhaled so much carbon dioxide that she did not have enough left in her bloodstream to trigger the breathing reflex. When she stopped breathing voluntarily, she stopped breathing altogether and died. In effect, the woman believed in the Friday the 13th hex and unintentionally fulfilled its prediction. A self-fulfilling prophecy involves having expectations about a behavior and then acting in some way, usually unknowingly, to carry out that behavior. In everyday life, we consciously or unconsciously tip off people as to what our expectations of them are.

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