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Scale explants from Lilium longiflorum bulbs produced a smaller number of larger bulblets if they had been taken from bulbs stored for less than 110 days medicine 1920s buy lariam 250 mg online, compared to those taken from bulbs stored for a longer period (Stimart and Ascher symptoms indigestion buy lariam 250mg amex, 1981b) medicine song order 250 mg lariam amex. An effect of storage temperature on subsequent bulblet size has also been demonstrated in Hyacinthus medicine ads cheap lariam amex. In addition, explants from bulbs kept at 5°C for 35 days, produced a larger number of bulblets than those taken from bulbs stored for a longer period at this temperature (Ko, 1986: reported in Read, 1988). When the stock plants were maintained at 15°C, there was a ten-fold increase in embryogenesis compared to when the stock plants were maintained at 10°C. As explained above, sprays of gibberellin and/or cytokinin are often effective in introducing some degree of re-juvenation (or re-invigoration) of woody plants, enabling explants to be cultured where previously it was impossible, and frequently inducing axillary bud break and increasing the number of shoots from which explants can be taken. A convenient method of applying plant growth regulators is to incorporate them into the forcing solution when leafless branches are taken from deciduous woody plants, or to apply them as a soak before forcing bud growth. A higher percentage of explants produced shoots or more shoots were produced per explant if the forcing solution contained 44. Economou and Read (1980) discovered that if leaves of Petunia were dipped for 30 seconds into a solution of 1. De Langhe and de Bruijne (1976) found that the shoot forming ability of cultured shoot explants of tomato was stimulated when the parental plants had been previously pre-treated with chlormequat chloride, but that if this compound was added instead to the culture medium, it was ineffective. It was also observed that shoots excised from Dahlia leaves gave rise to increased amounts of callus if the mother plants had been grown in short days or had been sprayed with a 2500 mg/l daminozide solution (Gavinlertvatana et al. Pre-treating wheat plants with sprays of 2,4-D and several other herbicides during the first week of embryo development caused multiple shoot formation from the embryos at a later stage (Ferguson and McEwan, 1970). This appears to occur through the in vivo formation of adventitious embryos (Ferguson et al. Success can be increased by considering the plants that are the sources of explants. Simply the time of year or portion of the stock plant from which explants are collected can have great influences on in vitro performance. Additionally, it may be necessary to rejuvenate or otherwise treat the stock plant or donor tissues prior to harvesting explants to place in culture. Formation and development of adventitious buds on excised scales cultured in vitro. Changes in the proliferative capacity in vitro during ontogeny in Robinia pseudoacacia and Castanea vulgaris and in adult and juvenile clones of R. Use of blueberry to study genetic control or chilling requirememt and cold hardiness in woody perennials. Management of hardy nursery stock plants to achieve high yields of quality cuttings. It certainly can be advantageous to move a culture from one kind of medium to another when the pattern of growth needs to be modified, or morphogenesis induced. However, many different kinds of plant cultures can be grown on one kind of medium and a critical view would be that much work on the effects of media composition is highly empirical and many workers fail to provide adequate justification of why particular additions to the media are made. We can save ourselves much time and expense if we can modify plant production and use media with fewer constituents and/or change media less frequently during plant development. This is clearly a good starting point for plant production but we should bear it in mind that direct shoot formation can occur on the explants of some species in water alone. A very simple medium containing sucrose and a relatively low concentration of mineral salts is generally all that is required for root cultures and the micropropagation of most orchids, but in some plants both direct and indirect morphogenesis can be very dependent on the medium used for in vitro culture, and a particular balance of inorganic, organic, and growth regulator constituents is essential. Various compositions have been developed to improve the growth of one or more particular tissues in culture. Features of these formulations, which can influence growth and morphogenesis, are discussed in Chapters 3 and 4. However, growth and development of different species and cultivars can be differentially affected by a single medium composition and may be only modified to a small extent by changing the composition of the medium. Often, shoot regeneration can be more dependent on genotype than on the presence of complex organic additives in the medium. One of the reasons that so many different recipes have been developed to aid growth and morphogenesis in culture is that different genotypes 423 E.
B) the decidua and trophoblasts provide the nutrition needed to provide nourishment of the blastocyst symptoms vaginal yeast infection discount lariam online mastercard. C) Steroid hormones are not stored to any appreciable extent in their endocrine producing glands medicine dictionary order lariam mastercard. In contrast medications not to crush buy discount lariam 250 mg online, there are appreciable stores of thyroid hormones and peptide hormones in their endocrine-producing glands medications for ibs buy lariam pills in toronto. Extensive renal disease reduces the amount of cortical tissue, eliminating the source of this active calcium regulating hormone. C) For erythroblastosis fetalis to occur, the baby must inherit Rh-positive red blood cells from the father. If the mother is Rh-negative, she then becomes immunized against the Rh-positive antigen in the red blood cells of the fetus, and her antibodies destroy fetal red blood cells, releasing large quantities of bilirubin into the plasma of the fetus. D) Because iodine is needed to synthesize thyroid hormones, the production of thyroid hormones is impaired if iodine is deficient. Increased metabolic rate, sweating, nervousness, and tachycardia are all common features of hyperthyroidism, not hypothyroidism, due to iodine deficiency. C) Because of the effects of thyroid hormones to increase metabolism in tissues, tissues vasodilate, thus increasing blood flow and cardiac output. All the other choices increase in response to high plasma levels of thyroid hormones. However, the buffering effect of sodium bicarbonate in the prostatic fluid raises the pH somewhat, allowing the sperm cells to regain some mobility. C) Steroids with potent glucocorticoid activity tend to increase plasma glucose concentration. Because of feedback, cortisone administration leads to a decrease in adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion and, therefore, a decrease in plasma cortisol concentration. B) In general, peptide hormones produce biological effects by binding to receptors on the cell membrane. Peptide hormones are stored in secretion granules in their endocrine-producing cells and have relatively short half-lives because they are not highly bound to plasma proteins. Protein hormones often have a rapid onset of action because, unlike steroid and thyroid hormones, protein synthesis is usually not a prerequisite to produce biological effects. Both hormones impair glucose uptake in peripheral tissues and, therefore, tend to increase plasma glucose concentration. However, if the mother had insufficient iron levels, severe anemia may develop in the infant after about 3 months of life. Increased plasma levels of glucocorticoids tend to cause sodium retention and increase blood pressure. They also tend to increase plasma levels of glucose and, consequently, stimulate insulin secretion and C-peptide, which is part of the insulin prohormone. Tachycardia, increased appetite, increased sweating, and muscle tremor are all signs of hyperthyroidism. D) Fertilization of the ovum normally takes place in the ampulla of one of the fallopian tubes. D) All the steroids listed include pregnenolone early in their biosynthetic pathway. D) Under chronic conditions, the effects of high plasma levels of aldosterone to promote sodium reabsorption in the collecting tubules are sustained. However, 248 persistent sodium retention does not occur because of concomitant changes that promote sodium excretion. D) the motor neurons of the spinal cord of the thoracic and lumbar regions are the sources of innervation for the skeletal muscles of the perineum involved in ejaculation. C) the gonadal steroids, in addition to controlling reproductive function, also control nonreproductive organ function via their estrogen and androgen receptors. For example, estrogens control vascular function due to their ability to increase intracellular calcium in vascular smooth cells causing vasodilation. B) Bone is deposited in proportion to the compressional load that the bone must carry. Continual mechanical stress stimulates osteoblastic deposition and calcification of bone. B) In the absence of 11-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, renal epithelial cells cannot convert cortisol to cortisone and, therefore, cortisol will bind to the mineralocorticoid receptor and mimic the actions of excess aldosterone.
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It must be recognized that the conditions that affect mycelial growth favorably may not so affect fruiting 25 medications to know for nclex generic lariam 250 mg free shipping. Mycelial growth and fruiting are different stages in the life cycle of the mushroom symptoms 2 weeks pregnant generic lariam 250 mg with visa, and the optimal condition for one is not necessarily (or even likely) the optimal condition for the other medicine numbers generic lariam 250 mg without prescription. This means that both mycelial growth and fruiting must be studied and techniques devised for selection of high-temperature dikaryotic stocks for both phases medications mitral valve prolapse generic 250 mg lariam fast delivery. Because it is essential for fruiting and is easier to approach experimentally, mycelial growth should be examined first. Obtaining the dry weight of the mycelium after a period of growth is the preferred method for measuring growth, but this is not suitable when many stocks and strains must be screened. Such measurements are useful in screening procedures where only one variable is being altered (temperature in this case). It is true that linear growth rate measurements may not be indicative of total amount of growth as the hyphal density is not measured, and it is known that in some studies a very sparse mycelium may have the same growth rate as a dense mycelium with much threedimensional growth. Along with the growth rate measurements, a qualitative estimate of mycelial density should be made. This is to determine the maximum temperature at which growth occurs, and, in cases where growth does not occur, to determine if the cells are viable by putting the plates in which no growth occurred at a temperature at which good growth occurs. Growth rate determination of monokaryotic components of the dikaryons, or singlespore cultures (which can be mated to give a dikaryon). When the monokaryotic cultures show significant growth rate differences, it is important to see if one or the other of the monokaryons influences the growth rate of the dikaryon. A number of studies have been made with other fungi to determine quantitatively the combining ability of various monokaryons in dikaryotic growth rate. Simchen and Jinks46 made such a study in Schizophyllum commune, and Simchen44,45 extended this to fruiting studies in Schizophyllum, while Williams et al. That is, it has been possible to examine "the genetic contribution of different monokaryons to the growth rate and yield of dikaryons. Mutagenic treatment of mycelium by ultraviolet light, followed by selection of hightemperature stock or strain by placing a mycelial macerate on a plate of medium at a temperature above which the stock or strain had grown. The combining ability of eight monokaryons in relation to dikaryotic growth rate and sporophore production in Pleurotus was studied. This means that screening for high-yielding stocks can be made without carrying out an experiment to assay the complete yield from each stock. In another study, correlation was found between the number of primordia produced by monokaryotic strains of Pleurotus exposed to the fruiting conditions required by dikaryons and the fruiting potential of dikaryotic mycelia. There is also a good correlation between time to produce a certain yield (250 g) of mushrooms and the eventual yield. This permits a screening for yield potential without carrying the experiment to the end of fruiting. With the encroachment on this ever-decreasing amount of untouched natural land by human activities, there is a concomitant loss of populations of species that inhabit that land and thus a loss of germplasm of various species, including edible fungi. For many important agricultural species, preservation of the germplasm in wild strains for future use in breeding programs is being preserved by the establishment of gene banks, and we suggest that it is important for this to be done with the edible fungi as well. Previously, we have suggested33 a procedure for collecting and conserving the germplasm of Lentinula edodes, a tetrapolar basidiomycete. Collection: Specimens of the fruiting bodies for subsequent tissue and spore isolations should be collected from diverse geographical areas and ecological situations. The aid of colleagues should be solicited, so that specimens can be obtained from widely separated geographical areas. The various collections of fruiting bodies, spore prints, or tissue cultures should be sent to a central laboratory where the culture will be prepared for analysis. Analysis: Matings of monosporous cultures from each collection will be made to determine the number of distinct mating types at the A and B loci of the tetrapolar species. This determination can be made by application of the formula: N= n(n - 1) / 2 r where N is the total number of distinct members of the series, n is the number of individuals in the sample, and r is the number of identical factors in the sample. The mating type genes are appropriate for this kind of analysis, because there is no indication in any previous study of a relationship between mating type and climate or geographical location; that is, the mating type alleles are distributed randomly. Suggestions: the cultures should be maintained as dikaryotic stocks, because dikaryotic stocks have twice the genetic material of a monokaryotic strain and recessive lethal mutations will not cause the loss of the culture. The stocks collected from nature should be maintained by techniques involving as little growth as possible.
With other commonly used solubilizers or co-solvents dilution may cause precipitation treatment low blood pressure cheap lariam 250mg with amex. Mutual takes the position that these words show that Astra has not claimed any solubilizer which would cause precipitation and because co-solvents are identified as a solubilizer that causes precipitation treatment effect generic lariam 250 mg with amex, Astra has disclaimed co-solvents treatment west nile virus 250 mg lariam for sale. Astra responds that this section of the specification identifies a test to see how well a chemical acts as a solubilizer for a particular active ingredient treatment 3 antifungal cheap 250mg lariam amex, and that this test is part of the well known description requirement to include the preferred embodiment; the test, however, cannot be imported into the claims. This Court agrees with Astra that acknowledging that a co-solvent may cause a negative outcome does not constitute an express disavowal of those solubilizers which may cause this less desirable result. The specification never clearly indicates that a micelle-forming solubilizer is required for the invention to work, nor does it clearly indicate that "without significant precipitation" means no precipitation. Accordingly, I conclude that the claim term is not limited to a solubilizer which precludes significant precipitation of the active drug or to a solubilizer which incorporates the active within a micelle structure. In summary, this Court concludes that the specification fails to unambiguously indicate that the patentee intended to redefine the term solubilizer. Accordingly, the specification supports the view that the term nonionic solubilizer includes all - 1670 - Jump to: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R ST UVW XY Z categories of solubilizers without any limitations. Thus, the patentee must make a statement that concedes or disclaims coverage of the claims at issue based on a piece of prior art. Only one component of these formulations could be a "nonionic solubilizer" in the context of the present invention, however, in view of the definition on Page 4, line 33 - Page 5, line 6, i. Furthermore, not a single example in Kawata discloses a preparation in which a nonionic solubilizer as defined herein is used in an amount by weight equal to or exceeding the amount of the drug. Mutual contends that by inserting the words "defined" and "definition" and referring to that portion of the specification which discusses only surfactants, Astra provided a special meaning for solubilizers. Astra explains that Kawata teaches making sparingly soluble drugs amorphous in order to increase the dissolution rate; the amorphous form is attained through either micronization (also referred to as milling) of the active compound, (citing Col. Astra notes that Kawata also teaches a second optional component, as noted in the above quoted portion of the Amendment, which can be used to aid in the co-precipitation process. Mutual fails to articulate reasons or point to specific portions of the prosecution history in support of its conclusory argument. Mutual attempts to diminish the clear import of this uncontested fact by arguing that Kawata, in mentioning surfactants, only demonstrates that those skilled in the art know the difference between the types of solubilizers and would not confuse them. In further support of its position, Astra highlights the following additional portion of the Amendment: Kawata does not appreciate the possibility of a control release preparation based upon a solution or a dispersion of a drug in a nonionic solubilizer. Kawata requires the presence of the 1st component of the basic substance, and requires that the drug be in an amorphous form. Kawata also expressly teaches that "no substance improving solubility in the intestines" is added (Col. Mutual also points to this statement in the Amendment: "Thus, none of the references disclose materials in which solutions or dispersions of the active material in a nonionic surfactant are formed into a solid preparation with extended release. Mutual contends that this statement indicates that Astra defined its invention as one using only surfactants. Astra responds that this statement is merely a description of prior art (beyond Kawata) which use surfactants. The reference immediately preceding this statement cited by Mutual provides: "both [references] describe increased solubilization of griseofulvin in the presence of nonionic surfactants. There is no basis in the cited art which would lead a person skilled in the art to apply this teaching in a sustained release drug formulation. Astra contends that the statement relied upon by Mutual was written to show that the surfactants previously used were not dissolving or dispersing the active material and were not formed into a solid preparation with extended release. Mutual contends that the passage on which it relies is not distinguishing only the secondary references which teach the use of surfactants, but all the references, including Kawata. While the language is not crystal clear, given the multiple references in which Astra describes its invention as using solubilizers and not specifically surfactants, I construe the passage on which Mutual relies as referring only to the secondary references which specifically taught the use of surfactants. In either event, however, this lone passage does not constitute an unambiguous disavowal of non-surfactant solubilizers. In summary, this Court agrees with plaintiff that the prosecution history indicates that Astra did not distinguish its patent from Kawata (1) on the ground of a particular solubilizer because not only does Kawata use an entirely different process, but the specification teaches against solubilizers; and (2) the claims do not require surfactant type solubilizers because Kawata discloses both surfactants and co-solvents as possibilities for the optional second component. I therefore conclude that the prosecution history does not limit the claim term nonionic solubilizer beyond its ordinary meaning.