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Exploring the origins of that project diabetes definition hba1c purchase discount metformin line, its success in modernism diabetic diet recipes generic metformin 500 mg visa, its critical heirs diabetes gestational prevention buy metformin 500 mg low cost, and its possible future managing diabetes during holidays metformin 500mg lowest price, the Ethics of Modernism brings a fresh perspective on modernist literature and its interaction with ethical strands of philosophy. It offers many new insights to scholars of twentieth-century literature as well as intellectual historians. To Christopher Ricks the question, how to live, is itself a moral idea; and it is the question which most interests every man, and with which, in some way or other, he is perpetually occupied. Walter Pater Contents Acknowledgments Introduction: literature and human nature 1 W. Eliot: the modernist Aristotle 3 James Joyce: love among the skeptics 4 Virginia Woolf: Antigone triumphant 5 Samuel Beckett: humanity in ruins Conclusion: technology and technique Notes Works Cited Index page ix 1 25 44 65 85 102 120 134 167 180 vii Acknowledgments I have benefited from the criticism of Christopher Ricks, to whom this book is humbly dedicated. My mother, Maureen Waters, and my stepfather, David Kleinbard, scrutinized the manuscript in its entirety; this book is part of a conversation we have been having for years. My wife, Kate Lieuallen Oser, reviewed my writing at every stage and helped me to develop my ideas. I have debated philosophy and literature for seven years with colleagues in a reading group comprising Jeffrey Bernstein, Jeffrey Bloechl, Robert Cording, Mark Freeman, Robert Garvey, James Kee, Joseph Lawrence, William Morse, and John Wilson. I wish to thank Anthony and Melanie Fathman, scholarly hosts, for their warm hospitality. I am grateful to my editor at Cambridge, Ray Ryan, and to two anonymous readers at the Press. I would also like to thank the College of the Holy Cross, especially two hard-working librarians, Diana Antul and Gail Montysco. Eliot and the Case of the Vanishing Ethics," in volume 4, number 2 (Spring 2002) of Literary Imagination: the Review of the Association of Literary Scholars and Critics, copyright 2002. I have drawn freely on my 2004 essay in Philosophy and Literature, "Human Nature and Modernist Ethics. Without this perspective, we can see little of the modernist moral project, which is to transform human nature through the use of art. Why should we remember the block of marble, dragged through the squalid province, before the breath of genius gave it life? And yet the old question has unmistakably returned: what good is there in human nature? I understand the issue as a choice between two alternatives, both ambitious and both imperfect. Their growing success is connected to the larger role of science in uncovering intellectual fraud in the humanities. A polymath reaching a wide audience with clear prose, Pinker brings Darwinian naturalism to bear both on modernist literature and on modernity itself. In the Blank Slate: the Modern Denial of Human Nature, he shows that Darwinian science contradicts modernism on such immensely important topics as sex, psychology, and the meaning of art. The elite arts, criticism, and scholarship are in trouble because the statement is wrong. Pinker is certainly right to see a Cartesian bias in much modern philosophy, and to find its culmination in modernism and postmodernism. And he is right despite the intense efforts of the modernists themselves to overcome the Cartesian divide between subject and object. They buried the living spirit of Aristotle before they were themselves laid to rest, and modern science lurched violently into being. Dividing the universe into mind and matter, he thought of animals as nothing more than complicated machines, constructed of passive particles. He lumped them with cabbages, sealing wax, and all the stuff of matter, which he called the res extensa, as opposed to the res cogitans or mind. Locke, finding that Cartesianism led to psychology, advanced an influential idea of disembodied personhood. Kantian ethics is denatured reasoning, and the categorical imperative is what William James calls a "cold-blooded and dispassionate judicial sentence, confined entirely to the mental realm. To support his Introduction: literature and human nature 3 metaphysic, he disconnects morality from our life as animals: "morality is Duty. He holds that subject-object relations for animals are "rather lived out than known" because there are "no objects without language.

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Pictures may be used with which he can indicate requests diabetes prevention group purchase cheap metformin on-line, even though he cannot read or speak managing diabetes everyday health metformin 500mg cheap. Gestures or visual signs may be employed when verbal understanding is very poor diabetes mellitus type 2 bmi buy metformin 500 mg fast delivery, coupled with one or two concrete words but avoiding a confusing flow of speech metabolic disease in dogs purchase generic metformin on line. Later in recovery instructions must be carefully spaced, given slowly, and as far as possible in the same manner on each occasion. Every attempt must be made to avoid withdrawal after early failures, to keep the patient involved and active, and to stimulate a continuing desire to communicate. Formal speech therapy has rarely been rigorously tested, which is surprising in view of the magnitude of the problem. Nevertheless, although it is uncertain whether the final level achieved exceeds that which would have occurred spontaneously, few doubt the effects of retraining programmes on emotional adjustment and morale. Impairment of memory must be specially catered for with a more gradual programme, frequent rehearsals and the provision of props and supports by way of notes and written instructions. The relative preservation of old memories may initially produce a misleading impression until ability to acquire new knowledge is specifically tested. Strategies for rehabilitation of memory impairments rest largely on the premise that it will not be possible to affect the degree of impairment, but that by using compensatory strategies it may be possible to reduce the consequent disability and handicap that the memory impairment produces. More general techniques concentrate on organising the study of material to be learned, chunking information into subsets and breaking down new skills into a series of steps. A review of memory rehabilitation across patients with different acquired brain injuries, including stroke, found errorless learning to be effective, whereas the case for the method of vanishing cues was not so robust (Kessels & de Haan 2003). However, there have been rather few attempts to demonstrate in stroke patients alone that rehabilitation can improve memory (Majid et al. Other intellectual impairments are a serious barrier to progress when at all extensive. Ill-sustained attention, perseveration, fatiguability and failure to grasp instructions may Cerebrovascular Disorders 491 combine to render attempts at rehabilitation fruitless. To maximise the chances of success, verbal instructions must be presented in simple language with deliberate methodical repetition. Practical demonstrations of what is expected may get the ideas across when other methods have failed. The pace will necessarily be slow, and allowance must be made for variability in performance from day to day. Motivation is among the most crucial determinants of progress and every means must be taken to optimise and maintain it. All through the programme, proper communication must be maintained so that he is aware of the plans and goals at every stage. Motivational interviewing is a specific technique that was originally designed to help patients with addictions, but more recently has been used in a variety of setting where poor motivation may jeopardise improvements in health. A watch must be kept for evidence of depression, which may well respond to appropriate medication or psychological therapy. Tactful handling may be required in the face of discouragement, withdrawal or obstinacy. Clear guidelines must sometimes be drawn up, especially for patients with intellectual impairment who will benefit from a structured environment. In contrast, flexibility must be built into the programme to allow for patients with differing needs and personalities. Rigid conformity to set standards cannot always be expected, and in some persons will be counterproductive. They too will need full discussion of aims and procedures, and help in adjusting to the disabilities that are likely to remain. Careful physical rehabilitation may be doomed to failure if insufficient attention has been given to the family situation and to the impact of the problem on family members. Here the social worker has a vital part to play, and should be brought into the picture at an early stage. Much time may be needed to allay unrealistic expectations or needless anxieties and fears. The stroke and its repercussions may have had a far-reaching effect on many members of the household, disturbing the family equilibrium and requiring a reorganisation of roles.

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Rather there is clouding of consciousness during which the patient will appear confused diabetes type 1 onset purchase metformin 500 mg with visa, disoriented and preoccupied but may interact with people and handle objects in their immediate environment diabetex international corp buy metformin in united states online, albeit in a disorganised manner and in ways that are inappropriate to the immediate social context control diabetes pdf best order for metformin. To the observer there is an inconspicuous and gradual transition from normal alertness to impaired responsiveness diabetic jam discount metformin on line. During the phase of impaired consciousness the patient commonly engages in repetitive semi-purposeful activities known as automatisms [Classification of epilepsy syndromes (Anatomically defined localisation-related epilepsy syndromes) and Epileptic Partial seizures with secondary generalisation Approximately 60% of patients with partial seizures will experience a secondary generalised seizure at some point. Occasionally, patients have secondarily generalised seizures with almost every partial seizure. In such cases the generalised convulsion may be so dramatic that it overshadows the preceding partial seizure. For this reason, when a patient presents with apparent generalised seizures, care must always be taken to search for any evidence of a partial seizure onset: from the patients themselves, who should be questioned about aura symptoms, and from witnesses who should be asked about blank staring episodes or brief automatisms occurring before the convulsion. Generalised seizures the defining characteristic of generalised seizures is that they have no detectable focal onset: the abnormal electrical discharges that accompany clinical seizures involve the cerebral cortex bilaterally at onset. Generalised seizures are divided into six sharply differing forms: absence (petit mal), myoclonic, tonic­clonic, tonic, clonic and atonic, as described below. Absence (petit mal) seizures Absence (petit mal) seizures begin in childhood or adolescence and dissappear in 80% of cases by adulthood, or are replaced by generalised tonic­clonic seizures. They rarely occur de novo in adults (see Generalised epilepsy and Nonconvulsive status epilepticus (Absence status) later in chapter). Without warning the patient loses contact with the environment, usually for 4 or 5 seconds but occasionally for as long as half a minute. To the onlooker the patient appears momentarily dazed, stops speaking and becomes immobile. The face is pale, the eyes assume a glazed appearance and the pupils may be observed to be fixed and dilated. Posture and balance are usually well maintained, though muscular relaxation may allow the head to slump forward. Brief muscular twitches may be seen around the eyes, occasionally extending to brief myoclonic jerks of the limbs. Consciousness is typically deeply impaired during the attack, though in rare cases subjects may remain dimly aware of what is happening around them. The patient may later be aware of the attack as a momentary break in the continuity of events, but quite often does not know it has occurred and continues immediately with the sentence or activity that was interrupted. The frequency of episodes is commonly five to ten per day, but sometimes hundreds may be noted in the course of a single day. Lennox (1960) suggested that if attacks do not occur daily, the diagnosis should be questioned. They begin and end abruptly like typical absences but the duration of attacks is likely to be longer, and they are often accompanied by prominent increases or decreases in muscle tone and tonic activity (Holmes et al. However, typical and atypical absences seem not to be discrete entities, but rather form parts of a continuum. Such automatisms can present difficulty over clinical differentiation from brief temporal lobe seizures, particularly when the latter are partially controlled by drugs. In such circumstances one may ultimately be forced to a trial of different medications (Marsden & Reynolds 1982). Tonic­clonic seizures Tonic­clonic seizures (formerly known as grand-mal seizures) of the primary generalised type occur without immediate warning and consciousness is lost abruptly. However, some subjects may be aware that a fit is imminent on account of ill-defined symptoms (the prodrome, see Pre-ictal disorders, later in chapter) present for hours or even days before the seizure, such as irritability, sleep disturbance, anxiety, nausea or headache. In subjects liable to myoclonic jerks these may increase in frequency for some hours before the tonic­clonic seizure. The seizure consists of a tonic followed by a clonic phase that involves all parts of the body symmetrically and from the same moment. During the tonic phase there is first flexion then extension of the axial muscles, rapidly spreading to the limbs.

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