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By: U. Ismael, M.A., M.D., Ph.D.
Associate Professor, Palm Beach Medical College
Mega infrastructure projects find strong opposition by civil society blood pressure normal values purchase prinivil overnight, not only through petition and protests but through actual occupation blood pressure medication questions purchase prinivil toronto. The example of food security pulse pressure and stroke volume relationship prinivil 10 mg free shipping, which is being treated throughout this assessment blood pressure 5080 generic prinivil 2.5mg visa, transcends almost all socio-environmental issues, as the way food is produced and distributed will condition the future of humankind. Collectively, the science, ideology, practices and movements put forward an alternative worldview of how agriculture should be practised (Altieri & Toledo, 2011; Claeys, 2013; Rabhi, 2006; Schiavoni et al. This alternative is primarily a reaction to the undesirable consequences of industrialised agriculture, including land degradation. In this context, a wide variety of terms have been used to describe these conservation agriculture alternatives: biodynamic, community based, ecoagriculture, ecological, environmentally sensitive, extensive, farm fresh, free range, low input, organic, permaculture, sustainable and wise use (Pretty, 2008). Until recently, these methods of sustainable agriculture were seen as alternatives rather than good practice principles in mainstream agriculture. Further research is needed to understand its role in carbon sequestration (Govaerts et al. Indeed, long supply chains (in kilometres or number of intermediaries) increase the profits of multinational corporations at the expense of producers, consumers and the environment (also see Chapter 5, Section 5. Raising ecological awareness is thus needed and could be achieved by making consumers aware of both their responsibility in environmental degradation and their power to solve the issue by adapting their behaviours (Peattie, 2010). They are now strongly supported by international small farmers organizations, such as La Via Campesina (created in 1993), including unions of developed as well as developing countries around an ideal of restoring traditional knowledge, gender equality and employment opportunities (also see Chapter 5, Section 5. These movements try to create new community models, organized around the exchange of goods, food and services in moral (or social) economy (Edelman, 2005). La Via Campesina is an expression of collective and leaderless resistance; it associates indigenous and peasant movement, united in their claim for land and respect. Altieri and Toledo (2011) talk about a "new agrarian revolution" structured around agroecology. These new movements opt for a political resistance based on social practices, without directly confronting the neoliberal system. The objective here is not the appropriation of the means of production, but the creation of a society with predominant values of solidarity, a non-materialistic approach to well-being based on sociability and respect for human and natural balance. Although progress was made in reducing the use of resources to produce goods, to date, the growing population has been increasing its consumption, thus limiting the positive impact of more efficient and sustainable production systems (Mont & Plepys, 2008). Policymakers have a leading role in promoting new ideas and concepts about what would be our general interest, and enforcing them so that they become new realities (Fukuyama, 2014). Several mechanism exist to promote sustainable or "green" consumption (Lebel & Lorek, 2008; Peattie, 2010). However, mechanisms for sustainable consumption appear most efficient when consumers are already sensitive to environmental issues (Rex & Baumann, 2007), otherwise the share of "green products" on the markets remains relatively low. People tend to adapt their behaviours to those perceived as common, normal, and/or morally and socially right (Goldstein et al. An education built upon ethical principles such as solidarity and cooperation would be a first step towards new perceptions. The current dominant model of social prestige is based ob raising the pattern of consumption to acquire expensive and/or rare products. An alternative model, based on a moral economy (Edelman, 2005), is emerging and growing with each year. This economy values social life, sobriety and solidarity, and is inspired by traditional populations and practices. Its aim is to consolidate social cohesion through community, mutual aid and productionconsumption systems (Lebel & Lorek, 2008; Mont & Plepys, 2008; Tukker et al. Education and awareness can contribute to transform passive citizens into environmental, proactive players, who feel concerned about their own impacts and responsibilities. Governments urgently need to take the lead in fostering an education system that values cooperation and solidarity, instead of competition and models based on high levels of consumption as a symbol of successful life. Capturing the Commons: Devising Institutions to Manage the Maine Lobster Industry. Soil erosion, indigenous irrigation and environmental sustainability, Marakwet, Kenya. Assessing the Relationship Between Human Well-being and Ecosystem Services: A Review of Frameworks. Environmentality: Community, Intimate Government, and the Making of Environmental Subjects in Kumaon, India.
For permission to heart attack enzyme prinivil 2.5 mg overnight delivery photocopy or reprint any part of this work blood pressure ranges for males discount prinivil 10mg on-line, please send a request with complete information to hypertension prevalence generic prinivil 10 mg amex the Copyright Clearance Center Inc blood pressure healthy vs unhealthy prinivil 10mg free shipping. The road to results: designing and conducting effective development evaluations / Linda G. This tool enables students and teachers to share notes and related materials for an enhanced, multimedia learning experience. The Origins and History of the Evaluation Discipline the Development Evaluation Context Principles and Standards for Development Evaluation Examples of Development Evaluations Summary Chapter 1 Activity Notes References and Further Reading Web Sites 5 7 8 19 26 29 36 41 41 42 42 46 Chapter 2. Building a Results-Based Monitoring and Evaluation System Importance of Results-Based Monitoring and Evaluation What Is Results-Based Monitoring and Evaluation Traditional versus Results-Based Monitoring and Evaluation Ten Steps to Building a Results-Based Monitoring and Evaluation System Summary Chapter 3 Activities Notes References and Further Reading Web Sites 103 105 106 107 108 112 135 136 139 139 140 Chapter 4. Understanding the Evaluation Context and the Program Theory of Change Front-End Analysis Identifying the Main Client and Key Stakeholders Understanding the Context Tapping Existing Knowledge Constructing, Using, and Assessing a Theory of Change Summary Chapter 4 Activities References and Further Reading Web Sites 141 142 144 149 150 150 171 172 174 177 Chapter 5. Developing Evaluation Questions and Starting the Design Matrix Sources of Questions Types of Questions vi 219 221 222 223 the Road to Results: Designing and Conducting Effective Development Evaluations Identifying and Selecting Questions Developing Good Questions Designing the Evaluation Summary Chapter 6 Activities References and Further Reading Web Sites 230 232 234 244 245 246 246 Chapter 7. Selecting Designs for Cause-and-Effect, Descriptive, and Normative Evaluation Questions Connecting Questions to Design Designs for Cause-and-Effect Questions Designs for Descriptive Questions Designs for Normative Questions the Need for More Rigorous Evaluation Designs Chapter 7 Activities Annex 7. Selecting and Constructing Data Collection Instruments Data Collection Strategies Characteristics of Good Measures Quantitative and Qualitative Data Tools for Collecting Data Summary Chapter 8 Activities References and Further Reading Web Sites 289 290 293 294 299 348 349 350 354 Chapter 9. Choosing the Sampling Strategy Introduction to Sampling Types of Samples: Random and Nonrandom Determining the Sample Size Summary Chapter 9 Activities References and Further Reading Web Sites 355 356 356 364 366 368 370 371 Contents vii Chapter 10. Managing an Evaluation Managing the Design Matrix Contracting the Evaluation Roles and Responsibilities of Different Players Managing People, Tasks, and Budgets Summary Chapter 12 Activities References and Further Reading Web Sites 439 441 442 442 446 451 460 461 463 465 Chapter 13. Presenting Results Crafting a Communication Strategy Writing an Evaluation Report Displaying Information Visually Making an Oral Presentation Summary viii 467 468 471 476 488 491 the Road to Results: Designing and Conducting Effective Development Evaluations Chapter 13 Activities References and Further Reading Web Sites 491 492 493 Chapter 14. Guiding the Evaluator: Evaluation Ethics, Politics, Standards, and Guiding Principles Ethical Behavior Politics and Evaluation Evaluation Standards and Guiding Principles Summary Chapter 14 Activity References and Further Reading Web Sites 495 496 499 506 510 511 512 513 Chapter 15. Looking to the Future Past to Present the Future Chapter 15 Activity References and Further Reading Web Sites Appendixes Index 515 516 518 527 528 529 531 563 Boxes 1. Evaluating poverty alleviation, globalization and its impacts on the poor, the consequences of global warming on weak countries, the structural inequalities of the global financial systems, and strategies to help postconflict countries are but a few of the areas in which development evaluation is making contributions to our understanding of, indeed, our response to these pressing issues. As pressures grow across the globe for accountability by governments and organizations for the consequences of their actions for greater responsiveness to internal and external stakeholders for their performance, and most profoundly for greater development effectiveness, evaluation is emerging as a key way in which to systematically address and answer the question, "So what Finding ways of evaluating is tenuous when governmental data systems are weak or nonexistent, corruption of information for political ends is frequent, information gaps are large and real, and there is no assurance that information provided is reliable. In the face of these challenges, development evaluation is resilient, innovative, and creative in finding ways to help provide information to citizens, government officials, donors, civil society, and the media on whether government programs are making a difference. This textbook seeks to contribute to the strengthening of development evaluation as a tool to inform the creation and implementation of policies and programs in particular and governance systems in general. Evaluation can be a powerful public management tool to improve the way governments and organizations perform and achieve results. Evaluation can be a powerful tool for civil society, nongovernmental organizations, and donor organizations that seek to support development among the poor. We, the authors, are indebted to a number of individuals who gave counsel, read parts of the manuscript and provided critiques, and encouraged us to continue to make this book a reality. The full list of people we wish to thank is provided at the back of the book (Appendix 1). A select group of people must be thanked here: Michael Patton, Patrick Grasso, Martin Abrams, Niels Dabelstein, Gregg Jackson, Gene Swimmer, and Nancy Porteous, each of whom read and critiqued sections of the book. Santiago Pombo Bejarano of the Office of the Publisher, World Bank, has been a strong wind at our backs. Finally, we have to acknowledge the outstanding contribution of Diane Schulz Novak, who worked with us throughout the entire process of writing and rewriting the manuscript. Her dedication, care, and craft in working with us have been so essential that in her absence we would not be writing this preface, as there would be no book to follow. It is right that as we come toward the apex of our careers, we are able to give to the evaluation community this fruit of our joint labors.
Laboratories use quality control and proficiency testing to blood pressure limits uk order prinivil on line monitor the precision and accuracy of test methods pulse pressure waveform purchase prinivil cheap. This section addresses the concept of accuracy and describes procedures that manufacturers and clinical laboratories use to prehypertension statistics buy discount prinivil 5 mg line ensure that a result reported for a test is a value that truly reflects the amount of analyte present in the sample arrhythmia 4279 order prinivil on line amex. The reader should consult Appendix B: References for more detailed information about these topics, especially Tietz Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics, 7th Edition, 2015, and website Lab Tests Online, Accuracy of analytic methods can be described using the concepts of precision and bias. Precise but Biased/Inaccurate If a sample is divided into several aliquots (a laboratory term for splitting a sample into a smaller portion) and each aliquot is tested for the amount of analyte in it, the results should ideally be the same for all aliquots. The closer the values are to each other, the more precise (reproducible) the method. In Panels B and C, the methods are equally precise (reproducible) but the results in Panel B are far from the true value (biased) while the results in Panel C are close to the true value (accurate) and precise (reproducible). Precision reflects the innate reproducibility of the signal generated by the test solution and the stability of the analyzer used to measure that signal. Standard deviation is calculated using the mean value (average) of all test values and the deviations of each measurement from the mean. In the example, the standard deviation of a Repeated Measurement is 10% of the mean. Calibration is the step that links the magnitude of an optical, electrochemical or any analytical signal to a specific amount of analyte. The accuracy of the calibration process is dependent on the values that are assigned to the calibrators. Bias is usually described as a percent reflecting the difference between the measured value and the true value. For example, if the target value is 50 and the measured value is 45, the bias is 5 parts out of 50 or 10% ([5/50] x 100). Assignment of values to calibrators relies on a process that links the value to some agreed upon standard material or reference method. Assignment of values to calibrators begins with identification of the substance that will serve as the "gold standard" for an analyte. For a simple substance such as calcium, a particular form is chosen to be the primary reference material, perhaps calcium carbonate or calcium phosphate. This determination is performed using a primary or definitive reference method, such as atomic absorption in the case of calcium. Primary reference materials are too costly and often not suitable to be used as calibrators in clinical laboratories. They may be insoluble in biological matrices (body fluid samples), or they may be in chemical forms that differ from those present in biological samples, and therefore unable to be detected by the methods used in a clinical laboratory. Secondary reference materials, or materials that are more suitable for analysis by typical clinical laboratory methods, are used instead. Their values are assigned by comparison with the primary reference materials using an analytic method that is robust enough to measure and compare the analyte in both the primary and secondary materials. The primary reference material serves as the calibrator to assign a value to the secondary material. Secondary reference materials are prepared in a matrix (solution) that resembles the actual patient specimens. These materials are commutable, that is, provide an analytical response similar to that of an actual patient specimen. Commutability can be confirmed by testing reference materials and fresh patient specimens together using two or more routine (field) methods. If the reference material is commutable, the results from the field methods should recover the target values assigned by a reference method and the analytical response should be consistent with that of the fresh patient specimens.
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