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There are many thousands of examples of arthropod species that have evolved specific virus yahoo email 250 mg sumycin for sale, highly specialized features that allow them to use specific plants 9 minecraft bacteria mod cheap sumycin online visa, animals antibiotic 93 1174 discount 250mg sumycin, or fungi as food antibiotic resistance prevention purchase sumycin 500 mg with visa, to communicate, to mimic other organisms, or to hide from them, and to rapidly colonize newly opened niches. Viewed from almost any angle, arthropods provide innumerable demonstrations of the "tangled bank" so eloquently described by Darwin in the closing passage of On the Origin of Species to depict the interconnected evolutionary processes and patterns that make up the history of life on earth. A good summary of the current consensus on arthropod evolution and the 173 implications of fossil discoveries and phylogenetic analyses on interpretation of arthropod head development. Arthropod phylogeny: An overview from the perspective of morphology, molecular data and the fossil record. An authoritative review of the current evidence from fossils, comparative anatomy, and molecular sequences of the classification and phylogeny of arthropods. A beautifully illustrated, encyclopedic treatment of insect evolutionary history, fossil record, and biology. Evidence from large-scale expressed gene samples of the phylogenetic history of animals, including a large sample of arthropod taxa. Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences. A new phylogenetic estimate of arthropod relationships based on nuclear gene sequences that firmly establishes the position of Hexapoda within the Pancrustacea. Tetrapod ancestry the fish-tetrapod transition Amniote origins Synapsids Diapsids: Lepidosaurs and their relatives Diapsids: Archosaurs Tetrapod evolution spans the last 375 million years, beginning with the origin of limbed terrestrial vertebrates from finned fishes. The earliest tetrapods were amphibians that radiated during the Late Paleozoic; only three groups of highly specialized amphibians survive today. The development of an amniotic egg provided novel mechanisms to enhance embryonic growth and allowed eggs to be laid on land. Amniotes came to dominate Mesozoic and Cenozoic terrestrial faunas worldwide, generated powered aerial flight three times, reverted to aquatic habitats and the marine realm repeatedly, created endothermic temperature controls, evolved limbs for running, digging, and climbing, flew in water with fins converted from limbs, many times lost limbs altogether, forged armor, concocted venoms and other weapons, adapted to eat almost everything macroscopic of biological origin, and attained body sizes across four orders of magnitude. Tetrapods that reproduce by means of an am- major jaw-closing muscles is completely enclosed. The term anapsid signifies lack of any external openings (fenestrae) that otherwise occur in diapsids and synapsids. Diapsids include numerous extinct Mesozoic taxa such as dinosaurs, pterosaurs, and ichthyosaurs. Amniotes that possess a single fenestra in the chamber housing jaw-closing muscles. Synapsids include extinct Late Paleozoic pelycosaurs and Permo-Triassic mammal-like reptiles (therapsids). The fish-tetrapod transition and the emergence of vertebrates onto land was initiated during the Late Devonian, some 375 million years ago. The earliest recognized of three clades of amniotes that arose in the Late Paleozoic. Anapsids are characterized by skulls in which the chamber housing the ancestry of tetrapods may be traced to bony fishes (Osteichthyes) that first appear in the fossil record during the Silurian (439408 million years ago, Ma). By Devonian times (408362 Ma), bony fishes had diverged into two distinct clades, ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) and fleshy-finned fishes (Sarcopterygii). In their pectoral and pelvic fins, both possess elongate, slender, rodlike scales (lepidotrichia) and a skeletal base for fins within the trunk. Sarcopterygians are distinctive for the muscles and robust skeleton present within the fin; in this group, lepidotrichia are largely confined to the fin margins. Sarcopterygians diversified into three distinctive assemblages that were major components of Devonian fish faunas: lungfish (Dipnoi), coelacanths (Actinistia), and a Tetrapod Evolution Rhynchocephalians (tuataras) Actinopterygians (ray-finned fishes) 175 Salamanders Monotremes Crocodilians Coelacanths Marsupials Placentals Caecilians Lungfish Lizards Snakes Turtles Frogs Present Cenozoic Modern amphibians 66 ma Cretaceous Mosasaurs Plesiosaurs Pterosaurs Sauropods Deinonychosaurs Mesozoic Jurassic Ornithischians Ichthyosaurs Mammals Prosauropods Saurischians Placodonts Theropods Triassic? Mammal-like reptiles Lepidosauromorphs Pelycosaurs Paleozoic amphibians Archosauromorphs Carboniferous Anapsids Amniotes Synapsids Diapsids Paleozoic Devonian Tetrapods (Ichthyostega, Acanthostega) Tiktaalik Crossopterygians Sarcopterygians (fleshy-finned fishes) Osteichythans (bony fishes) 542 ma Figure 1. Lungfishes and coelacanths have few living representatives, and neither is generally considered closely related to tetrapods. Rather, tetrapods arose from a particular crossopterygian group (the elpistostegalids) that did not survive the Paleozoic in their piscine form. Lungs were probably present in Devonian sarcopterygians as accessory respiratory organs, for they are present in extant lungfish and, in modified form, in living coelacanths. Although the respiratory function of gills was eventually abandoned, tetrapods retained and adapted the skeletal elements of the gill system for feeding and other functions. Tetrapods carried into a terrestrial sphere many crossopterygian features, including the pattern of skull bones persisting in modified shapes throughout tetrapod evolution.
If a junior doctor or nurse is in doubt as to whether further investigations are needed they must consult a senior virus 1918 order sumycin 500 mg without a prescription, especially for radiation exposure (see below) antibiotics for uti with least side effects order 250 mg sumycin overnight delivery. Every effort must be made to minimise painful or unnecessary investigations and procedures in children antibiotics for acne keloidalis nuchae discount sumycin 500mg overnight delivery, and to balance the need for these against the realistic difference they will make in management decisions bacteria notes generic 250 mg sumycin fast delivery. It may be possible to avoid admission and/or unnecessary investigations in a child by undertaking a period of observation. There is wide variation in the number of hours a child may be permitted to stay in these areas, but usually it is between 6-24 hours. If these are not available on-site there must be a system for transferring to the nearest facility with the required imaging. Ideally all images should be reviewed and reported in a timely fashion by a trained radiologist with paediatric experience; this can be done remotely (digital link transfer). Commonly used laboratory services (such as haematology, biochemistry, microbiology, transfusion) must be available. At least one member of staff on each shift must be competent in advanced paediatric life support skills. Trained staff must stay with a critically ill child until moved to a dedicated critical care environment or recovery happens. Following any major paediatric resuscitation a system should be in place for staff and family to be offered debriefing and if required, further counselling should be available. Parents and family should be given the opportunity to remain present during resuscitation of a child. M W Cooke, J Higgins, P Kidd Use of emergency observation and assessment wards: a systematic literature review Emerg Med J 2003;20:138-142 7. A short-stay observation unit improves care in the paediatric emergency care setting. Frush D, Donnelly L, Rosen N: Computed Tomography and Radiation Risks: What Pediatric Health Care Providers Should Know. This includes access to ancillary staff, such as clerical personnel, staff for transferring patients within the hospital, staff to perform investigations etc. Working long continuous shifts increases the risk of making errors in patient care and decision making. To minimize this risk, management should aim to roster separate medical and nursing teams for day and night shifts, with adequate recovery time between shifts. If staff members also work elsewhere in the hospital, the shift duration should take account of that time. However it is important to have the right staff levels and skills for paediatric patients, and staff employment may be limited by availability of suitably trained clinicians in paediatric emergency medicine (see Chapter 3). Therefore in evaluating the staffing on a shift-by-shift basis, providing safe coverage for children can present its own challenges. The peaks and troughs of patient arrivals by hour of day tend to be more exaggerated than for adult patients. In most countries paediatric attendances have two peaks: late morning / early afternoon, and early evening, with low attendances from midnight to 8 a. They will require protected time free from clinical work in order to: Lead education in paediatric emergency care to junior medical and nursing staff Lead quality projects to continually improve department wide paediatric emergency care; an example is the creation of paediatric clinical guidelines Advocate for resources required to treat children. When children arrive in the triage area, there should be a member of staff competent to perform a paediatric assessment within 15 minutes of arrival. This means matching staffing to the typical patient arrival times (described above). Success in achieving adequate staffing is more likely when you employ staff with multiple skills (emergency medicine and general paediatrics/paediatric internal medicine), and careful rostering. Standards in different countries recommend one paediatric emergency physician every 11,000 to 16000 1,5 visits per year. The number of patients arriving is often dependent on the time of day (described above) and predictable to some degree. There are two reasons for the need of rostering senior clinicians during peak attendance hours: To provide best direct care for children, rapidly To provide ongoing supervision of junior staff seeing children Medical staffing needs to provide enough supervision for junior doctors who may have little paediatric experience. This may be achieved either by an increase in the number of staff rostered to work during those periods, or perhaps in departments which see both children and adults, there should be flexibility to move staff between different clinical areas to cope with surges of patient presentations. Fewer children attend during night shift hours, so covering the night time period with fewer paediatric trained staff may be appropriate.
Higher fitness of resident genotypes in their native environment relative to that of immigrant genotypes in that same environment antibiotics effect on sperm discount 250mg sumycin. Lower fitness of progeny born to parents originating from divergent populations than from related populations antibiotic 500g purchase sumycin 250mg with amex. The higher proportion of homozygotes due to local mating compared with that expected in a well-mixed population with the same genetic diversity virus 888 number discount 500mg sumycin overnight delivery. The mutated protein that is the insecticide target antibiotic vitamins order genuine sumycin online, however, functions less well than the original one, so that mosquitoes sensitive to the insecticide outperform the resistant ones in nontreated areas in the north. Coloration in the walkingstick Timema cristinae confers differential crypsis depending on the host plant. The unstriped morph is more cryptic on Ceanothus, whereas the striped morph is more cryptic on Adenostoma. The less cryptic morph on each host decreases in frequency within each generation, as expected if it is subject to higher predation. The convergent evolution of such similar genetic clines de novo in both continents after introduction, however, suggests that variable selection (somehow linked to temperature), not drift, is responsible for the formation of the pattern. When new mutants are obtained by mutagenesis, their relative fitness can be assayed in different environments. Such experiments have been conducted in a number of rapidly reproducing organisms. Given the existence of adequate genetic variation, selection pressures varying in space should result in the emergence of patterns of local adaptation. Reciprocal transplantations of different genotypes across sites often show that local genotypes outperform foreign genotypes in their environment of origin. The fitness of different genotypes may also vary from one locality to the other, not because of extrinsic environmental differences, but because of intrinsic variation in the genetic composition of the local populations. This is the case in particular in presence of genetic incompatibilities, such that crosses between some genotypes are partially sterile. When for historical reasons different incompatible genotypes are more frequent in different locations, rare genotypes incompatible with the locally dominant genotype then suffer from a large fecundity disadvantage, which can maintain strong spatial patterns in genetic diversity. Similar arguments hold at different spatial scales: if exchanges between populations are rare, two individuals found in the same population are more likely to share a common ancestor in the relatively recent past (in that same population) than are two individuals in different populations, whose common ancestor probably dates back to an earlier time. When lineages have been separated for a longer time, the additional time has allowed for mutations to appear and develop differences in gene copies that initially descended from the same ancestor, which can explain the greater divergence between genes sampled in different populations rather than in the same population. When the number of individuals reproducing locally is not large, it is more likely that two local inhabitants share a common ancestor in a recent past. Many individuals will then carry identical gene copies that have not been altered by mutation since they descended from the same ancestor. Consanguinity then results in decreased genetic diversity and increased homozygosity at the local scale. The demographic history of populations thus has much potential to shape spatial genetic patterns. Many species have undergone relatively rapid spatial expansion after the retreat of glaciers in the quaternary. Colonization of new areas by a reduced number of founders affects spatial patterns of genetic diversity, because genotypes found in the new part of the range are only a small sample of the diversity found in the original range. The spatial spread of chloroplast variants at the continental scale has therefore been used to infer the various recolonization routes of oak trees from the distinct glacial refuges in southern Europe, with good agreement with the pollen fossil records. Selection the other main explanation for spatial genetic structure is that selection favors different genotypes in different locations. For instance, preference for different host plants is in part genetically determined in some butterflies. Female butterflies Geographic Variation and Migration with innate preference for some host plant will lay their clutches on patches of that host plant, and the corresponding genotype will be more frequent in such patches, even in the absence of any differences in performance of the different genotypes on that plant. Heavier fledglings of great tits preferentially settle in the less crowded parts of Wytham Wood, while lighter birds settle in denser areas. Phenotype- or genotype-dependent dispersal could thus be a source of phenotypic and genetic divergence among sites. Genotypes found at the very edge of the range in species undergoing rapid spatial expansion.
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Form and function are inextricably linked in living creatures because patterns of natural selection reflect the impact of alternative morphologies on the ability of the organism to perform the tasks determining its survival and reproduction virus mp3 purchase 250mg sumycin amex. To the extent that limb dimensions affect maneuverability and sprint speed antibiotic or antifungal order sumycin paypal, they can be expected to evolve if a new sort of predator comes on the scene antibiotics used for urinary tract infections sumycin 250 mg discount, favoring a different escape strategy; thus antimicrobial stewardship cheap sumycin 250 mg line, the primary reason that lizard limb dimensions evolve is that they underlie locomotor abilities, which in turn shape the survival and reproductive success of individual lizards. Form evolves mainly because it shapes performance and hence fitness; therefore, a key to understanding how form shapes fitness is to understand how it determines function. With mobile animals, most of the body is typically concerned with locomotion, feeding, or reproduction, and these systems are often similar in that they involve muscles and linkages of skeletal elements. The mechanical properties of these systems are shaped to a large degree by the sizes of muscles, the leverage of muscles acting across joints, Evolution of Form and Function and the mechanical properties of the muscles and skeletal elements themselves. In vertebrate animals, the skeleton is made mostly of bone; in arthropods the skeleton is made of chitin that is variably mineralized, and in a number of animals there is no skeleton per se, but stiff, contracted muscles often playing a similar role. Approaches to analyzing feeding and locomotor systems are very similar, since the task is to work out the mechanisms by which force and movement are transmitted from the muscles driving the behavior through the system and onto the environment. But not all animal performance is about movement; many other performance traits have a morphological basis. Some examples are camouflage, respiration, attractiveness to potential mates, acuity of vision, and the ability to detect sounds or chemicals. The relevant structures may be microscopic, but sensory systems normally have a performance basis in the size and shape of their component parts. Studies of Natural Selection Acting on Variation within a Population Studies of this type often involve some combination of two approaches in which the impacts of form on performance and on fitness are separately estimated. The typical strategy in this type of study is to capture a large number of individuals in a population, measure the traits of interest in each individual, and mark the individuals with an identifying tag before returning them to their habitat. After suf ficient time for some mortality or growth to occur, individuals are recaptured and their identities recorded. The starting form of survivors is compared to the entire original sample to determine whether form affected (or is correlated with) the probability of survival. In a handful of studies, researchers have measured not only form but also performance traits after initially capturing individuals, permitting deeper understanding of the ways in which selection is acting on performance and its underlying traits. In most cases, however, researchers measure selection acting on form without knowing the relationship between form and performance. In these cases they either assume they know how form and function are related, or they simply are not interested. Understanding the functional significance of form deepens our understanding of adaptation. A standard approach here is to model the functional system, such as the wing or bill of a bird, then to parameterize the model with key measurements from animals to estimate functional properties expected to directly impact performance. Here, measurements of individual size and shape are used to estimate a functional property. A common example with muscle-skeleton systems is to measure the mechanical advantage of a muscle acting across a joint with an input lever and an output lever. This might be done in a jaw by measuring the distance between the attachment of the jaw muscle on the jaw to the jaw joint as the input lever, and the distance from jaw joint to the location on the teeth where the food is held as the output lever. The ratio of the input lever to the output lever gives the mechanical advantage-or the proportion of an input force (produced by the jaw muscle) transmitted through the lever to the food item. Mechanical advantage of levers reflects a trade-off between transmission of force and transmission of movement (usually the movement of a contracting muscle). A lever with a low mechanical advantage transmits less force, but more motion, than a lever with a high mechanical advantage. In fact, there is a one-to-one exchange of force transmission and movement transmission in a lever, so that mechanical advantage modified during evolution to enhance force transmission will transmit less movement. Levers are central to mechanical engineering, but other functional systems might be more appropriately modeled by using chemical engineering, optics, or electrical engineering. Whether the system is a lever or some other functional device, the modeling approach is especially good for comparative studies because it allows one to efficiently compare the functional implications of variation in form. The use of models has also been very useful in studies of large numbers of species to relate form and function to habitat use and feeding habits of animals. Comparative Analyses the modeling approach is a powerful way to study diversity across species. Interestingly, it is much more common for even the best innovations to show little impact on the success of the group for a prolonged period of time, and in some cases there is never a spectacular burst of diversification.
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